Considerations in using photometer instruments for measuring total particulate matter mass concentration in diesel engine exhaust

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

In this work, engine-out particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from an off-highway diesel engine measured using a low-cost photometer, scanning mobility particle sizer, elemental versus organic carbon analysis, and a photo-acoustic analyzer are compared. Tested engine operating modes spanned the range of those known to result in high semi-volatile particle concentration and those that emit primarily solid particles. Photometer measurements were taken following a primary dilution stage and a sample conditioner to control relative humidity prior to the instrument. Results of the study show that the photometer could qualitatively track total particle mass trends over the tested engine conditions though it was not accurate in measuring total carbon mass concentration. Further, the required photometric calibration factor (PCF) required to accurately measure total PM mass changes with the organic carbon (OC) fraction of the particles. Variables that influence PCF include particle effective density, which changes both as a function of particle diameter and OC fraction. Differences in refractive index between semi-volatile and solid particles are also significant and contribute to high error associated with measurement of total PM using the photometer. This work illustrates that it may be too difficult to accurately measure total engine PM mass with a photometer without knowing additional information about the sampled particles. However, removing semi-volatile organic materials prior to the instrument may allow the accurate estimation of elemental carbon mass concentration alone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEmissions Control Systems; Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids; Numerical Simulation; Engine Design and Mechanical Development
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)9780791858325
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
EventASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017 - Seattle, United States
Duration: Oct 15 2017Oct 18 2017

Publication series

NameASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017
Volume2

Other

OtherASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017
CountryUnited States
CitySeattle
Period10/15/1710/18/17

Fingerprint

Photometers
Exhaust systems (engine)
Diesel engines
Organic carbon
Engines
Calibration
Carbon
Dilution
Refractive index
Atmospheric humidity
Acoustics
Scanning
Costs

Cite this

Northrop, W. F., Zarling, D., & Li, X. (2017). Considerations in using photometer instruments for measuring total particulate matter mass concentration in diesel engine exhaust. In Emissions Control Systems; Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids; Numerical Simulation; Engine Design and Mechanical Development (ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017; Vol. 2). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEF20173640

Considerations in using photometer instruments for measuring total particulate matter mass concentration in diesel engine exhaust. / Northrop, William F.; Zarling, Darrick; Li, Xuesong.

Emissions Control Systems; Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids; Numerical Simulation; Engine Design and Mechanical Development. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017. (ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017; Vol. 2).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Northrop, WF, Zarling, D & Li, X 2017, Considerations in using photometer instruments for measuring total particulate matter mass concentration in diesel engine exhaust. in Emissions Control Systems; Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids; Numerical Simulation; Engine Design and Mechanical Development. ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017, vol. 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017, Seattle, United States, 10/15/17. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEF20173640
Northrop WF, Zarling D, Li X. Considerations in using photometer instruments for measuring total particulate matter mass concentration in diesel engine exhaust. In Emissions Control Systems; Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids; Numerical Simulation; Engine Design and Mechanical Development. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2017. (ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017). https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEF20173640
Northrop, William F. ; Zarling, Darrick ; Li, Xuesong. / Considerations in using photometer instruments for measuring total particulate matter mass concentration in diesel engine exhaust. Emissions Control Systems; Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids; Numerical Simulation; Engine Design and Mechanical Development. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017. (ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2017).
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