Trade in ornamental coral reef wildlife supports a multi-million dollar industry but in some places threatens vulnerable coral reef species and ecosystems due to unsustainable practices and lack of effective regulation. To supply this trade, fishers sometimes deplete fish populations and rely on practices, such as cyanide fishing, that harm coral reef organisms and habitats. The number of countries involved, dispersed fishing localities, and the diversity of species in trade present considerable impediments to conservation and management. For instance, traditional fisheries management techniques such as stock assessments and total catch limits may not be feasible for ornamental fisheries, which are characterized by limited data on population dynamics, stock status, and collection effort, as well as instances of illegal, underreported, and unregulated fishing. A number of strategies to monitor, regulate, and manage the trade have been implemented with varying efficacy. In order to learn from previous attempts and identify promising approaches, we reviewed selected management practices and regulations from diverse settings, with attention to the effectiveness of each approach. Strategies reviewed include international agreements, marine protected areas, rotational closures, banned-species lists, quotas, cyanide detection, gear restrictions, size limits, licensing and limited entry into the fishery, and regulations on imports. Moratoriums on certain species, no-take reserves, tiered quota systems, and import and export restrictions, among others, provided examples of management successes. Further conservation and management improvements could be achieved through a wider application of successful strategies identified here and utilization of data-limited methods from food fisheries.
- Aquarium trade
- Coral reef conservation
- Coral reef fisheries
- Ornamental fisheries
- Sustainable fisheries management