Background Women's self-reports of whether they had a cesarean delivery are nearly 100% accurate, but there is little extant research on how accurately women self-report reasons for cesarean delivery when asked to recall this information in the postpartum period. Objective We compared women's self-reported reasons for cesarean with their hospital discharge records and examined correlates of variability in agreement between sources. Methods Data are from the First Baby Study, a cohort of 3,006 women who gave birth to their first baby between 2009 and 2011. Survey data were linked to hospital discharge records. Among women who delivered by cesarean (n = 846), we assessed the probability that women's self-reported reasons for cesarean delivery were confirmed by hospital discharge records (positive predictive value [PPV]), and whether agreement differed by reason for cesarean or by women's characteristics. Results Overall, 91% of women reported a reason for their cesarean that was present in the discharge data. PPV varied by reason for cesarean, with high PPV for dystocia, macrosomia, and cephalopelvic disproportion (91.1%), and lower PPV for malposition (81.7%). In multivariable models, women with more education and higher family income had higher odds of concordance. Conclusions Despite some variation in the probability that women's self-reported reason for cesarean is supported by the hospital discharge record, more than 90% of women reported a reason that was found in their discharge record. Accurate recall of reasons for prior cesarean may help women and clinicians to manage future pregnancies.