Conceptualizing native identity with a multidimensional model

John Gonzalez, Russell Bennett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This study reports on a Native Identity Scale (NIS) adapted from an African American identity scale (Sellers et al., 1997). American Indian (AIs) and First Nations Canadian participants (N = 199) completed the NIS at powwows in the Upper Midwest. The majority of respondents were Ojibwe, but other tribal groups were represented. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed four factors important in self-identity: Centrality, Humanist, Public Regard, and Oppressed Minority. The correlation of respondents' scores on items defining the four factors with some aspects of respondents' behavior supports the validity of the factors. It is suggested that the NIS is a promising new tool for the study of identity dimensions in AI populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-42
Number of pages21
JournalAmerican Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


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