Angela K. Martini, Sam Carlson, Dung T. Hoang, Sandra A. Wawersich, Crystal Compton, Abigail R. Clarke-Sather

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Measuring respiratory rate is a vital metric for monitoring human health in any setting. Despite its importance for detecting oncoming medical crises, it is often neglected due to the difficulties in accurate measurement. To combat this neglect, a respiratory rate monitoring smart garment was developed that measures breathing rate in real time in a manner that is unobtrusive to the patient. This paper focuses on a concept exploration of a non-invasive wearable garment to measure real time breathing rate using a digital zero-crossing detection signal processing approach. A respiratory rate monitoring garment was developed with a stitched sensor that wraps around the patient's chest and operates based on the relationship between resistance and displacement. As a person breathes, the chest expands and contracts, displacing the stitched sensor causing a change in resistance that can be measured and then counted as a breath. Unlike current solutions that utilize the fast Fourier transform (FFT) for signal processing of breathing rate, digital zero-crossing detection is used in this garment for improved accuracy and lower computational power. Four participants took part in a total of 15 trials where their normal breathing rate was measured by the stitched sensor and by at least two independent observers. The average sensor breath count was 2.44 breaths below the manually observed breath count. Major contributions to error were due to manual calibration of the sensor, and these discrepancies will be addressed in further prototype development. Despite the error between the sensor and manual breath count, the performance of the garment indicates respiratory rate monitoring in real time is possible, which increases the feasibility of more accurate and frequent respiratory rate monitoring thus increasing the potential for improved patient health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2022 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2022
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)9780791885710
StatePublished - 2022
Event2022 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2022 - Minneapolis, Virtual, United States
Duration: Apr 11 2022Apr 14 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of the 2022 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2022


Conference2022 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityMinneapolis, Virtual

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Minnesota Space Grant Consortium (MnSGC) for their support of Angela Martini for the development of the respiratory rate monitoring garment.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by ASME


  • Respiratory rate
  • conductive thread
  • digital zero-crossing
  • strain sensor


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