### Abstract

This paper discusses the implementation of mathematical functions such as exponentials, trigonometric functions, the sigmoid function and the perceptron function with molecular reactions in general, and DNA strand displacement reactions in particular. The molecular constructs for these functions are predicated on a novel representation for input and output values: a fractional encoding, in which values are represented by the relative concentrations of two molecular types, denoted as type-1 and type-0. This representation is inspired by a technique from digital electronic design, termed stochastic logic, in which values are represented by the probability of 1's in a stream of randomly generated 0's and 1's. Research in the electronic realm has shown that a variety of complex functions can be computed with remarkably simple circuitry with this stochastic approach. This paper demonstrates how stochastic electronic designs can be translated to molecular circuits. It presents molecular implementations of mathematical functions that are considerably more complex than any shown to date. All designs are validated using mass-action simulations of the chemical kinetics of DNA strand displacement reactions.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 8312 |

Journal | Scientific Reports |

Volume | 8 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Dec 1 2018 |

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- Journal Article

### Cite this

*Scientific Reports*,

*8*(1), [8312]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26709-6

**Computing Mathematical Functions using DNA via Fractional Coding.** / Salehi, Sayed Ahmad; Liu, Xingyi; Riedel, Marc; Parhi, Keshab K.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Scientific Reports*, vol. 8, no. 1, 8312. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26709-6

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Computing Mathematical Functions using DNA via Fractional Coding

AU - Salehi, Sayed Ahmad

AU - Liu, Xingyi

AU - Riedel, Marc

AU - Parhi, Keshab K

PY - 2018/12/1

Y1 - 2018/12/1

N2 - This paper discusses the implementation of mathematical functions such as exponentials, trigonometric functions, the sigmoid function and the perceptron function with molecular reactions in general, and DNA strand displacement reactions in particular. The molecular constructs for these functions are predicated on a novel representation for input and output values: a fractional encoding, in which values are represented by the relative concentrations of two molecular types, denoted as type-1 and type-0. This representation is inspired by a technique from digital electronic design, termed stochastic logic, in which values are represented by the probability of 1's in a stream of randomly generated 0's and 1's. Research in the electronic realm has shown that a variety of complex functions can be computed with remarkably simple circuitry with this stochastic approach. This paper demonstrates how stochastic electronic designs can be translated to molecular circuits. It presents molecular implementations of mathematical functions that are considerably more complex than any shown to date. All designs are validated using mass-action simulations of the chemical kinetics of DNA strand displacement reactions.

AB - This paper discusses the implementation of mathematical functions such as exponentials, trigonometric functions, the sigmoid function and the perceptron function with molecular reactions in general, and DNA strand displacement reactions in particular. The molecular constructs for these functions are predicated on a novel representation for input and output values: a fractional encoding, in which values are represented by the relative concentrations of two molecular types, denoted as type-1 and type-0. This representation is inspired by a technique from digital electronic design, termed stochastic logic, in which values are represented by the probability of 1's in a stream of randomly generated 0's and 1's. Research in the electronic realm has shown that a variety of complex functions can be computed with remarkably simple circuitry with this stochastic approach. This paper demonstrates how stochastic electronic designs can be translated to molecular circuits. It presents molecular implementations of mathematical functions that are considerably more complex than any shown to date. All designs are validated using mass-action simulations of the chemical kinetics of DNA strand displacement reactions.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047867990&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047867990&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/s41598-018-26709-6

DO - 10.1038/s41598-018-26709-6

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

IS - 1

M1 - 8312

ER -