Computed Tomographic, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cross-Sectional Anatomic Features of the Manus in a Normal American Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

C. P. Ober, L. E. Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


With 11 figures and 1 table. Summary: The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of cross-sectional anatomic structures of the manus of a black bear cadaver and correlate anatomic findings with corresponding features in computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. CT, MR imaging, and transverse sectioning were performed on the thoracic limb of a cadaver female black bear which had no evidence of lameness or thoracic limb abnormality prior to death. Features in CT and MR images corresponding to clinically important anatomic structures in anatomic sections were identified. Most of the structures identified in transverse anatomic sections were also identified using CT and MR imaging. Bones, muscles and tendons were generally easily identified with both imaging modalities, although divisions between adjacent muscles were rarely visible with CT and only visible sometimes with MR imaging. Vascular structures could not be identified with either imaging modality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-242
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Veterinary Medicine Series C: Anatomia Histologia Embryologia
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010


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