Comprehensive versus usual community care for first-episode psychosis: 2-Year outcomes from the NIMH RAISE early treatment program

John M. Kane, Delbert G. Robinson, Nina R. Schooler, Kim T. Mueser, David L. Penn, Robert A. Rosenheck, Jean Addington, Mary F. Brunette, Christoph U. Correll, Sue E. Estroff, Patricia Marcy, James Robinson, Piper S. Meyer-Kalos, Jennifer D. Gottlieb, Shirley M. Glynn, David W. Lynde, Ronny Pipes, Benji T. Kurian, Alexander L. Miller, Susan T. AzrinAmy B. Goldstein, Joanne B. Severe, Haiqun Lin, Kyaw J. Sint, Majnu John, Robert K. Heinssen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

571 Scopus citations


Objective: The primary aim of this study was to compare the impact of NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, team-based treatment approach for first-episode psychosis designed for implementation in the U.S. health care system, with community care on quality of life. Method: Thirty-four clinics in 21 states were randomly assigned to NAVIGATE or community care. Diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinical outcomes were assessed via live, two-way video by remote, centralized raters masked to study design and treatment. Participants (mean age, 23) with schizophrenia and related disorders and ≤6 months of antipsychotic treatment (N=404) were enrolled and followed for ≥2 years. The primary outcome was the total score of the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, a measure that includes sense of purpose, motivation, emotional and social interactions, role functioning, and engagement in regular activities. Results: The 223 recipients of NAVIGATE remained in treatment longer, experienced greater improvement in quality of life and psychopathology, and experienced greater involvement inwork and school compared with 181 participants in community care. The median duration of untreated psychosis was 74 weeks. NAVIGATE participants with duration of untreated psychosis of ,74 weeks had greater improvement in quality of life and psychopathology compared with those with longer duration of untreated psychosis and those in community care. Rates of hospitalization were relatively low compared with other firstepisode psychosis clinical trials and did not differ between groups. Conclusions:Comprehensive care for first-episode psychosis can be implemented in U.S. community clinics and improves functional andclinicaloutcomes. Effects aremorepronounced for those with shorter duration of untreated psychosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)362-372
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


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