Complex segregation analysis of baseline resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and their responses to training (post-training minus baseline) were performed in a sample of 482 individuals from 99 white families who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Resting BP and HR were measured at baseline and after a 20-week training program. Baseline resting BP and HR were age-adjusted and age-BMI-adjusted, and the responses to training were age-adjusted and age-baseline-adjusted, within four gender-by-generation groups. This study also analyzed the responses to training in two subsets of families: (1) the so-called "high" subsample, 45 families (216 individuals) with at least one member whose baseline resting BP is in the high end of the normal BP range (the upper 95th percentile: systolic BP [SBP] ≥ 135 or diastolic BP [DBP] ≥ 80 mm Hg); and (2) the so-called "nonhigh" subsample, the 54 remaining families (266 individuals). Baseline resting SBP was influenced by a multifactorial component (23%), which was independent of body mass index (BMI). Baseline resting DBP was influenced by a putative recessive locus, which accounted for 31% of the variance. In addition to the major gene effect, which may impact BMI as well, baseline resting DBP was also influenced by a multifactorial component (29%). Baseline resting HR was influenced by a putative dominant locus independent of BMI, which accounted for 31% of the variance. For the responses to training, no familiality was found in the whole sample or in the nonhigh subsample. However, in the high subsample, resting SBP response to training was influenced by a putative recessive locus, which accounted for 44% of the variance. No familiality was found for resting DBP response to training. Resting HR response to training was influenced by a major effect (accounting for 35% of the variance), with an ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The HERITAGE Family Study is supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute through the following grants: HL45670 (C. Bouchard, PI), HL47323 (A. S. Leon, PI), HL47317 (D. C. Rao, PI), HL47327 (J. S. Skinner, PI), and HL47321 (J. H. Wilmore, PI). It also is supported by a NIH grant to the University of Minnesota Clinical Research Center. A. S. Leon also is supported in part by the Henry L. Taylor Professorship in Exercise Science and Health Enhancement. C. Bouchard also is partially supported by the George A. Bray Chair in Nutrition.
- Major effect
- Major gene effect
- Multifactorial effect