Complete genome sequencing of influenza A viruses within swine farrow-to-wean farms reveals the emergence, persistence, and subsidence of diverse viral genotypes

Andres Diaz, Douglas Marthaler, Marie Culhane, Srinand Sreevatsan, Moh Alkhamis, Montserrat Torremorell

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14 Scopus citations


Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are endemic in swine and represent a public health risk. However, there is limited information on the genetic diversity of swine IAVs within farrow-to-wean farms, which is where most pigs are born. In this longitudinal study, we sampled 5 farrow-to-wean farms for a year and collected 4,190 individual nasal swabs from three distinct pig subpopulations. Of these, 207 (4.9%) samples tested PCR positive for IAV, and 124 IAVs were isolated. We sequenced the complete genomes of 123 IAV isolates and found 31 H1N1, 26 H1N2, 63 H3N2, and 3 mixed IAVs. Based on the IAV hemagglutinin, seven different influenza A viral groups (VGs) were identified. Most of the remaining IAV gene segments allowed us to differentiate the same VGs, although an additional viral group was identified for gene segment 3 (PA). Moreover, the codetection of more than one IAV VG was documented at different levels (farm, subpopulation, and individual pigs), highlighting the environment for potential IAV reassortment. Additionally, 3 out of 5 farms contained IAV isolates (n = 5) with gene segments from more than one VG, and 79% of all the IAVs sequenced contained a signature mutation (S31N) in the matrix gene that has been associated with resistance to the antiviral amantadine. Within farms, some IAVs were detected only once, while others were detected for 283 days. Our results illustrate the maintenance and subsidence of different IAVs within swine farrow-to-wean farms over time, demonstrating that pig subpopulation dynamics are important to better understand the diversity and epidemiology of swine IAVs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00745-17
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017



  • Complete genome sequencing
  • Diseases of swine
  • Influenza A virus diversity
  • Influenza A virus emergence
  • Influenza A virus epidemiology
  • Influenza A virus persistence
  • Influenza in swine herds
  • Next-generation-sequencing technologies
  • Swine influenza
  • Swine influenza epidemiology

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