The objective of study was to compare clinical outcome of cryoplasty, tandem stents, and cutting balloon ureteroplasty as “bailout procedures” to prevent surgical intervention or stent dependency in renal transplant patients with refractory ureteral stricture. All patients who underwent a bailout procedure from June 11, 2003, to August 8, 2015, at a single institution were reviewed retrospectively. Refractory ureteral stricture was defined as ureteral stenosis not responding to at least two prior percutaneous plain balloon ureteroplasties. Primary patency was defined as stable allograft function following the procedure with unobstructed urine outflow, not requiring indwelling ureteral stent, repeat ureteroplasty, or surgical revision. Sixty-one procedures were performed on 51 patients. Patients were followed up for a median of 286 days. Overall primary patency rate was 26.1%. Primary patency rate by method was 38.1%, 23.1%, and 14.3% after cryoplasty, tandem stent placement, and cutting balloon dilatation, respectively (P =.260). Primary patency rate was higher in early (<3 months post-transplant) ureteral strictures (35.7% vs 13.3%; P =.047). More complications identified in patients who had tandem ureteral stents (P =.00754). As some renal transplant patients may not be good operative candidates for ureteral revision, it would be reasonable to attempt one of these “bailout” interventions as long as the clinical team and patient are aware of overall low potential for achieving primary patency.
- cutting balloon
- recalcitrant ureteral stenosis
- renal transplantation
- tandem ureteral stents