Three experiments were performed to evaluate the inflammatory response, the antibody response and protection from experimental challenge of various Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 (Ap5) vaccines in swine. In the first experiment, subcutaneous injections of either a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) caused lesions at the site of injection, while intraperitoneal injection of the W/O emulsion caused no lesions. In the second experiment, intraperitoneal (IP) injection of a W/O emulsion containing unwashed Ap5 cells (6-h culture) and/or supernates from a 24-h culture resulted in severe peritoneal lesions, while W/O emulsion containing PBS-washed Ap5 cells resulted in minimal peritoneal lesions. Ap5 alone or W/O alone failed to cause peritoneal lesions. The third experiment compared the antibody response and protection from challenge of pigs immunized with either 6-h PBS-washed Ap5 cells emulsified in oil - IP, 6-hour Ap5 cells adjuvanted with dimethyl diodacyl ammonium bromide - IP, Ap5 antigen alone - IP, a commercial vaccine - subcutaneously or saline - IP. All groups, except the saline-treated group, responded with high antibody titers to Ap5 2 weeks following vaccination; however, titers from the W/O plus antigen group were significantly higher than the three other groups (P < 0.05). Following intranasal challenge with Ap5, all animals responded with increased antibody titers. All pigs were euthanized 10 days after challenge and evaluated for pneumonia and the lungs cultured for bacteria. The lungs of all pigs, excepting the W/O plus antigen group, contained pneumonic lesions and A. pleuropneumoniae was cultured from these lesions. These results, along with results from other groups, suggest that intraperitoneal immunization using oil-adjuvanted vaccine may be an effective method for protecting pigs from pneumonia due to A. pleuropneumoniae. Its efficacy may be due to stimulation of local respiratory mucosal immunity.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Drs. R. Morrison and F. Vahdat for assistance in evaluating pneumonic lungs and serologic testing. We also thank L. Alexander and R. Walsh for the typing of the manuscript. This work was supported both by a grant from Oxford Laboratories, Worthington MN, and the Minnesota Experiment Station (No. 14318).