We compared nevirapine (NVP) resistance (NVPR) mutations in maternal plasma 7 days vs. 6-8 weeks after single-dose NVP prophylaxis. In the HIVNET 012 trial, Ugandan women received a single dose of NVP in labor for prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission. NVPR mutations were detected in 70 (25%) of 279 women 6-8 weeks after NVP. Samples collected 7 days after NVP were analyzed from a subset of those 279 women. Genotyping was performed with the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System. NVPR was analyzed using paired samples from 7 days and 6-8 weeks after NVP. Sixty-five women had genotyping results obtained for samples collected at both 7 days and 6-8 weeks post-NVP. Twenty-one (32%) of those women had NVPR mutations detected in one or both samples. This included three women with NVPR at 7 days only, seven with NVPR at 6-8 weeks only, and 11 with NVPR at both time points. Eight women had >1 NVPR mutation detected 7 days after NVP. Y181C was the most common NVPR mutation detected at 7 days, whereas K103N was the most common NVPR mutation detected at 6-8 weeks. We conclude that NVPR may be detected in women as early as 7 days after single-dose NVP. Complex patterns of NVPR are detected in some women. The Y181C NVPR mutation often fades from detection by 6-8 weeks. In contrast, the K103N mutation emerges more slowly, but often remains detectable 6-8 weeks after NVP.