Comparison of individual, group and environmental sampling strategies to conduct influenza surveillance in pigs

Jorge Garrido-Mantilla, Julio Alvarez, Marie R Culhane, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Jean Paul Cano, Montse Torremorell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen in pigs that affects productivity and has important public health implications because of its zoonotic nature. Surveillance is central to the control of influenza, however, detection of IAV infections can be challenging in endemically infected herds with low prevalence of infection. Methods: In groups of suckling (18-21 days of age) and growing (35-45 days of age) pigs, we compared various sampling approaches to detect, isolate and sequence IAV using individual (nasal swabs, nasal wipes and oropharyngeal swabs), group (oral fluids, surface wipes and sow udder skin wipes) and environmental (airborne particles deposited on surfaces and air samples) sampling approaches. All samples were tested by IAV rRT-PCR and a subset was used for virus isolation and direct sequencing. Results: In general, environmental and group samples resulted in higher odd ratios (range = 3.87-16.5, p-value < 0.05) of detecting a positive sample by rRT-PCR compared to individual pooled samples, except for oropharyngeal swabs (OR = 8.07, p-value < 0.05). In contrast, individual samples were most likely to yield a viral isolate by cell culture. Oropharyngeal swabs in suckling pigs (78.4%), and nasal swabs (47.6%) or nasal wipes (45%) in growing pigs, and udder wipes in lactating sows (75%) were the preferred samples to obtain an isolate. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that group and environmental sampling strategies should be considered in influenza surveillance programs in particular if the goal is just to detect infection. This study provides new information on sampling approaches to conduct effective influenza surveillance in pigs and identifies udder wipes from lactating sows as a novel sample type that offers a convenient, cheap and sensitive manner to monitor IAV in litters prior to weaning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number61
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 14 2019

Fingerprint

Influenza A virus
influenza
Human Influenza
Swine
Animal Mammary Glands
swine
Nose
monitoring
sampling
Polymerase Chain Reaction
udders
sows
Zoonoses
Virus Diseases
Infection
Weaning
suckling
Public Health
Cell Culture Techniques
Odds Ratio

Keywords

  • Environment
  • Influenza
  • Pigs
  • Sampling
  • Surveillance
  • Udder wipe

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Journal Article

Cite this

Comparison of individual, group and environmental sampling strategies to conduct influenza surveillance in pigs. / Garrido-Mantilla, Jorge; Alvarez, Julio; Culhane, Marie R; Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Cano, Jean Paul; Torremorell, Montse.

In: BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 61, 14.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen in pigs that affects productivity and has important public health implications because of its zoonotic nature. Surveillance is central to the control of influenza, however, detection of IAV infections can be challenging in endemically infected herds with low prevalence of infection. Methods: In groups of suckling (18-21 days of age) and growing (35-45 days of age) pigs, we compared various sampling approaches to detect, isolate and sequence IAV using individual (nasal swabs, nasal wipes and oropharyngeal swabs), group (oral fluids, surface wipes and sow udder skin wipes) and environmental (airborne particles deposited on surfaces and air samples) sampling approaches. All samples were tested by IAV rRT-PCR and a subset was used for virus isolation and direct sequencing. Results: In general, environmental and group samples resulted in higher odd ratios (range = 3.87-16.5, p-value < 0.05) of detecting a positive sample by rRT-PCR compared to individual pooled samples, except for oropharyngeal swabs (OR = 8.07, p-value < 0.05). In contrast, individual samples were most likely to yield a viral isolate by cell culture. Oropharyngeal swabs in suckling pigs (78.4{\%}), and nasal swabs (47.6{\%}) or nasal wipes (45{\%}) in growing pigs, and udder wipes in lactating sows (75{\%}) were the preferred samples to obtain an isolate. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that group and environmental sampling strategies should be considered in influenza surveillance programs in particular if the goal is just to detect infection. This study provides new information on sampling approaches to conduct effective influenza surveillance in pigs and identifies udder wipes from lactating sows as a novel sample type that offers a convenient, cheap and sensitive manner to monitor IAV in litters prior to weaning.",
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