We provide a both qualitative and quantitative comparisons among different approaches aimed at solving the problem of non-linear diffusive acceleration of particles at shocks. In particular, we show that state-of-the-art models (numerical, Monte Carlo and semi-analytical), even if based on different physical assumptions and implementations, for typical environmental parameters lead to very consistent results in terms of shock hydrodynamics, cosmic ray spectrum and also escaping flux spectrum and anisotropy. Strong points and limits of each approach are also discussed, as a function of the problem one wants to study.
- Acceleration of particles
- Cosmic rays