Although patients with T-cell phenotype lymphomas are generally accepted to have worse prognosis than B-cell phenotype lymphomas, the studies comparing outcomes after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) between peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) and with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are few. In this study, we compared outcomes after ASCT between 23 patients with PTCLs and 54 patients with DLBCL. Univariate analysis showed that the timing of ASCT, complete response (CR) at ASCT, favorable lactate dehydrogenase/performance/stage, low/ low-intermediate (L-LI) International Prognostic Index (IPI) and L-LI age-adjusted IPI (aaIPI) at ASCT were significant predictors of both OS and EFS. Multivariate analysis showed that CR and L-LI aaIPI at ASCT were favorable for both OS (hazard ratio (HR), 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14-0.81; P = 0.016 and HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.12-0.57; P = 0.001) and EFS (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.85; P = 0.020 and HR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.77; P = 0.008). B-cell or T-cell phenotype, however, had no impact on OS (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.27-1.18; P = 0.126) or EFS (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.30-1.30; P = 0.206). In conclusion, when compared to patients with DLBCL, patients with PTCLs did not have inferior outcomes after ASCT. T-cell phenotype itself may not have an effect on outcomes of PTCL patients who underwent ASCT.