Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

Nancy Daher, Rawad Saleh, Ezzat Jaroudi, Hiba Sheheitli, Thérèse Badr, Elizabeth Sepetdjian, Mariam Al Rashidi, Najat Saliba, Alan Shihadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

181 Scopus citations

Abstract

The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-14
Number of pages7
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume44
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Aerosol dynamics
  • Environmental chamber
  • Environmental tobacco smoke
  • Hookah
  • Shisha

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