Comparing mathematics interventions: Does initial level of fluency predict intervention effectiveness?

Robin S. Codding, Mariya Shiyko, Maria Russo, Sarah Birch, Erica Fanning, Deborah Jaspen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


A paucity of research has directly compared empirically supported interventions to examine their effectiveness among students with different mathematics fluency skills. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two empirically supported interventions and a control condition on the mathematics fluency of 98 second and third grade students. Specifically, effects of explicit timing and cover-copy-compare on subtraction fluency were examined each session, which occurred twice weekly for a total of six weeks. HLM was used to examine progress during the intervention sessions and determine the effect of initial fluency level on intervention effectiveness. Results suggested students' initial level of fluency impacted intervention effectiveness. That is, for students whose fluency levels fell within the frustrational range CCC and control conditions resulted in the best performance over time but for children whose fluency was in the instructional range explicit timing was the most effective treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)603-617
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of school psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2007


  • Cover-copy-compare
  • Elementary school
  • Explicit timing
  • Interventions
  • Mathematics


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