Community penalties in the United States

Michael Tonry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The author discusses some background matters concerning the US criminal justice systems that may provide useful context for non-US readers, and summarises the main general conclusions about the operation of community penalties from two decades' research. He also briefly summarises research concerning each of the major penalties that have been attempted. Why American jurisdictions have been comparatively unsuccessful at use of community penalties as alternatives to incarceration and whether that lack of receptivity can be changed is discussed in the conclusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-22
Number of pages18
JournalEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999


  • Community sentences
  • Evaluation
  • Literature review
  • Sentencing guidelines

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Community penalties in the United States'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this