Community-Based Study Recruitment of American Indian Cigarette Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Users

Dana Mowls Carroll, Lacy S. Brame, Lancer D. Stephens, Theodore L. Wagener, Janis E. Campbell, Laura A. Beebe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Data on the effectiveness of strategies for the recruitment of American Indians (AIs) into research is needed. This study describes and compares methods for identifying and recruiting AI tobacco users into a pilot study. Community-based strategies were used to recruit smokers (n = 35), e-cigarette users (n = 28), and dual users (n = 32) of AI descent. Recruitment was considered proactive if study staff contacted the individual at a pow wow, health fair, or vape shop and participation on-site or reactive if the individual contacted the study staff and participation occurred later. Screened, eligible, participated and costs and time spent were compared with Chi square tests. To understand AI descent, the relationship between number of AI grandparents and AI blood quantum was examined. Number of participants screened via the proactive strategy was similar to the reactive strategy (n = 84 vs. n = 82; p-value = 0.8766). A significantly greater proportion of individuals screened via the proactive than the reactive strategy were eligible (77 vs. 50%; p-value = 0.0002) and participated (75 vs. 39%; p-value = < 0.0001). Per participant cost and time estimated for the proactive strategy was $89 and 87 min compared to $79 and 56 min for the reactive strategy. Proportion at least half AI blood quantum was 32, 33, and 70% among those with 2, 3, and 4 AI grandparents, respectively (p = 0.0017). Proactive strategies resulted in two-thirds of the sample, but required more resources than reactive strategies. Overall, we found both strategies were feasible and resulted in the ability to reach sample goals. Lastly, number of AI biological grandparents may be a good, non-invasive indicator of AI blood quantum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)186-192
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Community Health
Volume43
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Study support was provided by the Oklahoma Shared Clinical and Translational Resources (OSCTR, U54GM104938). We are deeply thankful for the support of the Southern Plains Tribal Health Board, the IHS IRB, and the many tribal communities which helped make this research a success. We are also thankful for the several vape shops that allowed the study staff to recruit and enroll participants on-site. This project titled ?Nicotine Metabolism in AI Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Users? was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (project number 1R36DA042208-01).

Funding Information:
Funding This project titled ‘Nicotine Metabolism in AI Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Users’ was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (project number 1R36DA042208-01).

Funding Information:
Although the inclusion of minorities in research is necessary for valid inferences within all sub-populations and mandated in National Institutes of Health funded research [1], minority groups are often underrepresented in research. Reasons for exclusion of minority groups are complex and may stem from planned exclusion, inadvertent exclusion, non-participation, or a combination of these reasons. Participant recruitment can be one of the most challenging aspects of ensuring minority populations are well-represented [2, 3]. In addition to conventional recruitment barriers when working with the general population, researchers may also face cultural challenges to research participation with minority populations [3]. As a result, there is interest in effective recruitment strategies for minority populations.

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements Study support was provided by the Oklahoma Shared Clinical and Translational Resources (OSCTR, U54GM104938). We are deeply thankful for the support of the Southern Plains Tribal Health Board, the IHS IRB, and the many tribal communities which helped make this research a success. We are also thankful for the several vape shops that allowed the study staff to recruit and enroll participants on-site.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Keywords

  • American Indians
  • Electronic cigarettes
  • Epidemiologic studies
  • Minority groups
  • Pilot projects
  • Recruitment
  • Tobacco use

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