Livestock and poultry production systems include diverse housing and manure storage practices depending on species, animal age, stage of production, products produced and climate. Swine housing systems typically segregate animals into different facilities based on the pig life cycle phase. Most swine systems handle manure as a slurry or liquid. Manure collected below slotted flooring in swine barns can either be stored in barn briefly before being transferred to outdoor storage, or stored for longer periods ( six months) in a deep pit before removal for land application. Broiler chickens and turkeys are typically raised in barns with organic litter covered floors. Used litter may be stacked prior to land application. Layer hen production systems include cage, enriched colony, and cage free-housing systems. In most cases layer hen manure is handled as a solid and removed from the bird area to a stacking area. Dairy calves are usually raised on straw in various types of housing. Most lactating dairy cow housing includes bedded freestalls and alleys that are cleaned multiple times a day. Sand is commonly used as freestall bedding but recycled solids can be used. Bedding selection impacts outdoor manure storage options and equipment used for manure removal and land application. Some dairy cattle are raised in compost barns that use practices that keep the bedded pack aerobic. Milking center washwater is usually added to the farm's manure storage system. Beef cattle facilities depend on production stage. Most cow-calf operations are pasture based. As calves grow and enter backgrounding or finishing phases, they tend to transition to feedlot-based systems. Feedlots may be open lots with runoff containment, under roof with manure storage in bedded packs or under-floor storage, or combinations thereof. Responsible animal care and environmental considerations are paramount for housing and manure storage practices across all livestock and poultry production systems.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Animal Manure|
|Subtitle of host publication||Production, Characteristics, Environmental Concerns, and Management|
|Number of pages||17|
|State||Published - Jan 9 2020|
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