Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The most active general area of cardiovascular investigation is heart failure. Programs in myocardial energetics, myocardial perfusion, molecular and cellular bases of heart failure, genetic determinants of heart disease, treatment of heart failure, use of myocardiocytes or stem cells to repair damaged hearts, regulation of stem cells, tissue engineering, and xenotransplantation are funded by the National Institutes of Health. So too are epidemiologic studies of heart disease and research to eliminate the cardiovascular risk factors of smoking, obesity, and diabetes. These successful research programs are the underpinning for clinical research in treatments for heart failure.