Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by (1) the NIH/NINDS 1R21 NS078607, (2) Dartmouth Clinical and Translational Science Institute under award number KL2TR001088 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) of the NIH (SJ), and (3) Robert W. Crichlow Career Development Award in Surgery, Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, 2014 (SSL). Dr Paulsen and Dr Roberts receive research equipment support from Medtronic Inc and Carl Zeiss Inc. Dartmouth possesses intellectual property rights relating to the use of stereovision for image-guided surgery. Globus Medical Inc (Audubon, Pennsylvania) provided spinal instrumentation to our research group, free of charge, for use in the current study. Stryker Corporation (Kalamazoo, Michigan) provided Leibinger Universal Fixation mini-screws, free of charge, for use in the current study. The authors are also grateful to Dr Timothy Schaewe for technical assistance on SteathLink©R and help from the Medtronic Navigation (Louisville, Colorado).