Commentaries on “The Lenses of Lean”

Michael A. Cusumano, Matthias Holweg, Josh Howell, Torbjørn Netland, Rachna Shah, John Shook, Peter Ward, James Womack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The phenomenon of the Toyota Production System (TPS) and the term “Lean” have received much attention from researchers and especially practitioners over the past 40 years. As scholarly perspectives on these topics continue to evolve, we invited Wally Hopp and Mark Spearman to contribute an essay to the JOM Forum that became “The Lenses of Lean,” and we invited several other prominent authors affiliated with Lean to react to that article and share their perspectives on Lean. We are delighted to have received four such contributions, which we have assembled here with the hope of furthering this important conversation (Note: For consistency of exposition, we have capitalized the term “Lean” throughout these commentaries when it is used in the phenomenological sense). —Tyson Browning and Suzanne de Treville.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)627-639
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Operations Management
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 17 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Association for Supply Chain Management, Inc.


  • Lean
  • Toyota Production System
  • process improvement
  • work flow
  • worker involvement


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