Combining Wave Function Methods with Density Functional Theory for Excited States

Soumen Ghosh, Pragya Verma, Chris Cramer, Laura Gagliardi, Donald G Truhlar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

39 Scopus citations


We review state-of-the-art electronic structure methods based both on wave function theory (WFT) and density functional theory (DFT). Strengths and limitations of both the wave function and density functional based approaches are discussed, and modern attempts to combine these two methods are presented. The challenges in modeling excited-state chemistry using both single-reference and multireference methods are described. Topics covered include background, combining density functional theory with single-configuration wave function theory, generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) theory, global hybrids, range-separated hybrids, local hybrids, using KS orbitals in many-body theory (including calculations of the self-energy and the GW approximation), Bethe-Salpeter equation, algorithms to accelerate GW calculations, combining DFT with multiconfigurational WFT, orbital-dependent correlation functionals based on multiconfigurational WFT, building multiconfigurational wave functions from KS configurations, adding correlation functionals to multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) energies, combining DFT with configuration-interaction singles by means of time-dependent DFT, using range separation to combine DFT with MCSCF, embedding multiconfigurational WFT in DFT, and multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7249-7292
Number of pages44
JournalChemical Reviews
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 8 2018


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