Antigen accumulation in lymph nodes (LNs) is critical for vaccine efficacy, but understanding of vaccine biodistribution in humans or large animals remains limited. Using the rhesus macaque model, we employed a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence imaging to characterize the whole-animal to tissue-level biodistribution of a subunit vaccine comprised of an HIV envelope trimer protein nanoparticle (trimer-NP) and lipid-conjugated CpG adjuvant (amph-CpG). Following immunization in the thigh, PET imaging revealed vaccine uptake primarily in inguinal and iliac LNs, reaching distances up to 17 cm away from the injection site. Within LNs, trimer-NPs exhibited striking accumulation on the periphery of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks in B cell follicles. Comparative imaging of soluble Env trimers (not presented on nanoparticles) in naïve or previously-immunized animals revealed diffuse deposition of trimer antigens in LNs following primary immunization, but concentration on FDCs in pre-immunized animals with high levels of trimer-specific IgG. These data demonstrate the capacity of nanoparticle or “albumin hitchhiking” technologies to concentrate vaccines in genitourinary tract-draining LNs, which may be valuable for promoting mucosal immunity.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Aug 1 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the NIH (award P01AI048240 to RMR, SCK, PTF, and DJI, award UM1 AI144462 to DJI and WRS), the Ragon Institute of MGH , MIT , and Harvard, the U. S. Army Research Office through the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies at MIT , under Cooperative Agreement Number W911NF-18-2-0048 , and the Koch Institute Support (core) Grant P30-CA14051 .
© 2021 The Author(s)
- Fluorescence imaging
- Non-human primates
- PET imaging
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.