Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer

Michael R. Hamblin, Ana P. Castano, Pawel A Mroz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern peoples largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with the minimal toxicity. This is best accomplished by educating the body's immune system to recognize the tumor as foreign so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that eventually cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, generation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins, while the three commonest cancer therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) all tend to suppress the immune system. Like many other immunotherapies, the extent of the immune response after PDT tends to depend on the antigenicity of the particular tumor. Combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments are likely to emerge in the future to even further enhance immunity. These are likely to include the so called biological response modifiers that generally consist of products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved sophisticated defenses involving immune activation. A series of pattern recognition molecules including toll-like receptors have been identified that are activated by products derived from pathogens and lead to upregulation of transcription factors that induce expression of many cytokines and inflammatory mediators, which then cause activation of macrophages, dendritic and natural killer cells. There have been several reports of combinations of PDT with microbial derived products potentiating tumor response and leading to long-term anti-tumor immunity. In recent years the role of regulatory T-cells in suppressing anti-tumor immunity has been identified. Treatments such as low dose cyclophosphamide that selectively reduces T-regulatory cells can also be combined with PDT. Methods may be developed to increase the expression of particular tumor antigens before PDT. Although so far these combination therapies have only been used in animal models, their use in clinical trials should receive careful consideration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference
Pages99-113
Number of pages15
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2008
Externally publishedYes
Event2nd Conference on "Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy" an Engineering Conference International, ECI 2007 - Tomar, Portugal
Duration: Jun 24 2007Jun 29 2007

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Electrical Engineering
Volume12 LNEE
ISSN (Print)1876-1100
ISSN (Electronic)1876-1119

Other

Other2nd Conference on "Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy" an Engineering Conference International, ECI 2007
CountryPortugal
CityTomar
Period6/24/076/29/07

Fingerprint

Photodynamic therapy
Tumors
Immune system
Antigens
Chemical activation
Transcription factors
Mammals
Photosensitizers
Oncology
Chemotherapy
T-cells
Macrophages
Radiotherapy
Pathogens
Cell death
Microorganisms
Surgery
Pattern recognition
Byproducts
Toxicity

Keywords

  • Anti-tumor immunity
  • Antigen presentation
  • Cytotoxic T-cells
  • Dendritic cells
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • T regulatory cells
  • Toll-like receptors

Cite this

Hamblin, M. R., Castano, A. P., & Mroz, P. A. (2008). Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer. In Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference (pp. 99-113). (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Vol. 12 LNEE). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71809-5_11

Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer. / Hamblin, Michael R.; Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel A.

Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference. 2008. p. 99-113 (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Vol. 12 LNEE).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Hamblin, MR, Castano, AP & Mroz, PA 2008, Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer. in Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol. 12 LNEE, pp. 99-113, 2nd Conference on "Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy" an Engineering Conference International, ECI 2007, Tomar, Portugal, 6/24/07. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71809-5_11
Hamblin MR, Castano AP, Mroz PA. Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer. In Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference. 2008. p. 99-113. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71809-5_11
Hamblin, Michael R. ; Castano, Ana P. ; Mroz, Pawel A. / Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer. Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference. 2008. pp. 99-113 (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering).
@inproceedings{5125c9c7918c41f8af62028f7f4b0858,
title = "Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer",
abstract = "Abstract Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern peoples largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with the minimal toxicity. This is best accomplished by educating the body's immune system to recognize the tumor as foreign so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that eventually cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, generation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins, while the three commonest cancer therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) all tend to suppress the immune system. Like many other immunotherapies, the extent of the immune response after PDT tends to depend on the antigenicity of the particular tumor. Combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments are likely to emerge in the future to even further enhance immunity. These are likely to include the so called biological response modifiers that generally consist of products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved sophisticated defenses involving immune activation. A series of pattern recognition molecules including toll-like receptors have been identified that are activated by products derived from pathogens and lead to upregulation of transcription factors that induce expression of many cytokines and inflammatory mediators, which then cause activation of macrophages, dendritic and natural killer cells. There have been several reports of combinations of PDT with microbial derived products potentiating tumor response and leading to long-term anti-tumor immunity. In recent years the role of regulatory T-cells in suppressing anti-tumor immunity has been identified. Treatments such as low dose cyclophosphamide that selectively reduces T-regulatory cells can also be combined with PDT. Methods may be developed to increase the expression of particular tumor antigens before PDT. Although so far these combination therapies have only been used in animal models, their use in clinical trials should receive careful consideration.",
keywords = "Anti-tumor immunity, Antigen presentation, Cytotoxic T-cells, Dendritic cells, Photodynamic therapy, T regulatory cells, Toll-like receptors",
author = "Hamblin, {Michael R.} and Castano, {Ana P.} and Mroz, {Pawel A}",
year = "2008",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/978-0-387-71809-5_11",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780387718088",
series = "Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering",
pages = "99--113",
booktitle = "Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer

AU - Hamblin, Michael R.

AU - Castano, Ana P.

AU - Mroz, Pawel A

PY - 2008/12/1

Y1 - 2008/12/1

N2 - Abstract Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern peoples largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with the minimal toxicity. This is best accomplished by educating the body's immune system to recognize the tumor as foreign so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that eventually cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, generation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins, while the three commonest cancer therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) all tend to suppress the immune system. Like many other immunotherapies, the extent of the immune response after PDT tends to depend on the antigenicity of the particular tumor. Combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments are likely to emerge in the future to even further enhance immunity. These are likely to include the so called biological response modifiers that generally consist of products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved sophisticated defenses involving immune activation. A series of pattern recognition molecules including toll-like receptors have been identified that are activated by products derived from pathogens and lead to upregulation of transcription factors that induce expression of many cytokines and inflammatory mediators, which then cause activation of macrophages, dendritic and natural killer cells. There have been several reports of combinations of PDT with microbial derived products potentiating tumor response and leading to long-term anti-tumor immunity. In recent years the role of regulatory T-cells in suppressing anti-tumor immunity has been identified. Treatments such as low dose cyclophosphamide that selectively reduces T-regulatory cells can also be combined with PDT. Methods may be developed to increase the expression of particular tumor antigens before PDT. Although so far these combination therapies have only been used in animal models, their use in clinical trials should receive careful consideration.

AB - Abstract Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern peoples largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with the minimal toxicity. This is best accomplished by educating the body's immune system to recognize the tumor as foreign so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that eventually cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, generation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins, while the three commonest cancer therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) all tend to suppress the immune system. Like many other immunotherapies, the extent of the immune response after PDT tends to depend on the antigenicity of the particular tumor. Combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments are likely to emerge in the future to even further enhance immunity. These are likely to include the so called biological response modifiers that generally consist of products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved sophisticated defenses involving immune activation. A series of pattern recognition molecules including toll-like receptors have been identified that are activated by products derived from pathogens and lead to upregulation of transcription factors that induce expression of many cytokines and inflammatory mediators, which then cause activation of macrophages, dendritic and natural killer cells. There have been several reports of combinations of PDT with microbial derived products potentiating tumor response and leading to long-term anti-tumor immunity. In recent years the role of regulatory T-cells in suppressing anti-tumor immunity has been identified. Treatments such as low dose cyclophosphamide that selectively reduces T-regulatory cells can also be combined with PDT. Methods may be developed to increase the expression of particular tumor antigens before PDT. Although so far these combination therapies have only been used in animal models, their use in clinical trials should receive careful consideration.

KW - Anti-tumor immunity

KW - Antigen presentation

KW - Cytotoxic T-cells

KW - Dendritic cells

KW - Photodynamic therapy

KW - T regulatory cells

KW - Toll-like receptors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84884997381&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84884997381&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-0-387-71809-5_11

DO - 10.1007/978-0-387-71809-5_11

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9780387718088

T3 - Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering

SP - 99

EP - 113

BT - Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference

ER -