In the development of low-cost, efficient, and environmentally friendly thin-film solar cells (TFSCs), the search continues for a suitable inorganic colloidal nanocrystal (NC) ink that can be easily used in scalable coating/printing processes. In this work, we first report on the colloidal synthesis of pure wurtzite (WZ) Cu2SnS3 (CTS) NCs using a polyol-mediated hot injection route, which is a nontoxic synthesis method. The synthesized material exhibits a random distribution of CTS nanoflakes with an average lateral dimension of ∼94 ± 15 nm. We also demonstrate that CTS NC ink can be used to fabricate low-cost and environmentally friendly TFSCs through an ethanol-based ink process. The annealing of as-deposited CTS films was performed under different S vapor pressures in a graphite box (volume; 12.3 cm3), at 580 °C for 10 min using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process. A comparative study on the performances of the solar cells with CTS absorber layers annealed under different S vapor pressures was conducted. The device derived from the CTS absorber annealed at 350 Torr of S vapor pressure showed the best conversion efficiency 2.77%, which is the first notable efficiency for an CTS NCs ink-based TFSC. In addition, CTS TFSCs performance degraded only slightly after 50 days in air atmosphere and under damp heating at 90 °C for 50 h, indicating their good stability. These results confirm that WZ CTS NCs may be very attractive and interesting light-absorbing materials for fabricating efficient solar-harvesting devices.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by a Human Resources Development grant (No. 20124010203180) from the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) funded by the Korean Government Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy and partially supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning (NRF-2015R1A2A2A01006856)).
© 2016 American Chemical Society.