Educators have widely used cognitive strategy instruction to address reading comprehension deficits evidenced by students with learning disabilities. However, no one has yet conducted a review of the quality of this literature. This review applies the quality indicators advocated by Gersten et al. (2005) and Horner et al. (2005) to evaluate the quality of published group and single-subject design studies that support cognitive strategy instruction. The authors analyzed 18 group studies and 7 single-subject design studies and calculated average weighted effect sizes and percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND). Only group design studies met the criteria for cognitive strategy instruction as an evidence-based practice. The authors also discuss implications for future research and practice.