Cognitive impairments at two years of age after prenatal alcohol exposure or perinatal asphyxia

M. Korkman, L. A. Hilakivi-Clarke, I. Autti-Ramo, V. Fellman, M. L. Granstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The purpose of this follow-up study was to assess and describe early cognitive impairments in two-year-old children exposed to alcohol (1) until the second trimester (n = 20), (2) until the third trimester (n = 20), (3) throughout pregnancy (n = 20), (4) children to mothers with preeclampsia (n = 37), (5) children surviving acute birth asphyxia (n = 14), and (6) a normal control group (n = 48). Alcohol exposure throughout pregnancy was found to be associated with impairments in language (mean SD score = -1.3) and visuo-motor development (mean SD score = -2.0). Preeclampsia was related to impairment in visuo-motor development (mean SD score = -1.2) and attention (mean SD score = -0.7). Alcohol exposure until the third trimester was associated with attention deficit alone (mean SD score = -0.9). Alcohol exposure until the second trimester and acute birth asphyxia were not associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The study also showed that neuropsychological test profiles of language, visuo-motor functions and attention may be obtained with the aid of an adapted version of the Bayley Mental Scale and an evaluation of attention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-105
Number of pages5
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Attention deficit
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Fetal alcohol exposure
  • Language disorder
  • Mental development
  • Perinatal asphyxia
  • Visuo-motor impairment


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