Background Chronic kidney disease is common and is associated with cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cognitive function, although the nature of this relationship remains uncertain. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort using baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Setting & Participants Participants in SPRINT, a randomized clinical trial of blood pressure targets in older community-dwelling adults with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or high cardiovascular disease risk and without diabetes or known stroke, who underwent detailed neurocognitive testing in the cognition substudy, SPRINT−Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension (SPRINT-MIND). Predictors Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Outcomes Cognitive function, a priori defined as 5 cognitive domains based on 11 cognitive tests using z scores, and abnormal white matter volume quantified by brain magnetic resonance imaging. Results Of 9,361 SPRINT participants, 2,800 participated in SPRINT-MIND and 2,707 had complete data; 637 had brain imaging. Mean age was 68 years, 37% were women, 30% were black, and 20% had known cardiovascular disease. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 20.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median urine ACR was 9.7 (IQR, 5.7-22.5) mg/g. In adjusted analyses, higher ACR was associated with worse global cognitive function, executive function, memory, and attention, such that each doubling of urine ACR had the same association with cognitive performance as being 7, 10, 6, and 14 months older, respectively. Lower eGFR was independently associated with worse global cognitive function and memory. In adjusted models, higher ACR, but not eGFR, was associated with larger abnormal white matter volume. Limitations Cross-sectional only, no patients with diabetes were included. Conclusions In older adults, higher urine ACR and lower eGFR have independent associations with global cognitive performance with different affected domains. Albuminuria concurrently identifies a higher burden of abnormal brain white matter disease, suggesting that vascular disease may mediate these relationships.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
- Kidney disease
- brain imaging
- cardiovascular disease (CVD)
- cerebrovascular disease
- estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
- executive function
- global cognitive function
- kidney function
- neurocognitive test battery
- urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR)
- white matter volume