Background: Moderate coffee consumption has been suggested to be associated with lower risk for chronic conditions such as diabetes, a major precursor to chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the association between coffee and CKD has not been fully established. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: 14,209 participants aged 45 to 64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Predictors: Coffee consumption (cups per day) was assessed at visits 1 (1987-1989) and 3 (1993-1995) using food frequency questionnaires. Outcomes: Incident CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 accompanied by ≥25% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, CKD-related hospitalization or death, or end-stage renal disease. Results: There were 3,845 cases of incident CKD over a median of 24 years of follow-up. Men, whites, current smokers, and participants without comorbid conditions were more likely to consume higher amounts of coffee per day. After adjustment for demographic, clinical, and dietary factors, higher categories of coffee consumption were associated with lower risk for incident CKD compared with those who never consumed coffee (HR for <1 cup per day, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82-0.99]; 1-<2 cups per day, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82-0.99]; 2-<3 cups per day, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.77-0.97]; and ≥3 cups per day, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.75-0.94]). In continuous analysis, for each additional cup of coffee consumed per day, risk for incident CKD was lower by 3% (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99; P < 0.001). Limitations: Self-reported coffee consumption and observational design. Conclusions: Participants who drank higher amounts of coffee had lower risk for incident CKD after adjusting for covariates. Coffee consumers may not be at adverse risk for kidney disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Support: Dr Rebholz is supported by a grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (K01 DK107782). Ms Hu is supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI; training grant T32 HL007024). The ARIC Study has been funded in whole or in part with federal funds from the NHLBI, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, under contract nos. (HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700003I, HHSN268201700005I, HHSN268201700004I, and HHSN2682017000021). The funders had no role in the study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of these data; writing the report; and the decision to submit the report for publication.
- chronic kidney disease (CKD)
- incident CKD
- kidney failure
- modifiable risk factor