Co-Design of a Fully Electric Hybrid Hydraulic-Electric Architecture (FE-HHEA) for Off-Road Mobile Machines

Aditya A. Khandekar, Jacob Siefert, Perry Y. Li

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Off-road mobile machines, such as excavators and wheel-loaders, are typically actuated by hydraulics using internal combustion engines as their power sources. There is a trend towards fully electrifying these machines and improving their efficiencies due to environmental regulations and concerns. In this paper, a control co-design methodology is used to design a Fully Electrified Hybrid Hydraulic-Electric Architecture (FE-HHEA) for an excavator that drastically reduces energy consumption and minimizes the sizes of costly electric components. By optimizing both control operation and the physical design, the co-design methodology takes into account the interaction between these two aspects. The design methodology also illustrates how the system architecture evolves from the previously developed IC engine powered HHEA with the engine replaced by an electric motor to a seemingly very different architecture with fewer components. The optimized system reduces energy consumption by 71% over the baseline system and uses electrical components that are 1/3 the size of an alternate fully electric architecture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2021 American Control Conference, ACC 2021
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781665441971
StatePublished - May 25 2021
Event2021 American Control Conference, ACC 2021 - Virtual, New Orleans, United States
Duration: May 25 2021May 28 2021

Publication series

NameProceedings of the American Control Conference
ISSN (Print)0743-1619


Conference2021 American Control Conference, ACC 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, New Orleans

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ACKNOWLEDGMENT This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE-EERE under the VTO Award DE-EE0008384.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Automatic Control Council.


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