CNTRICS imaging biomarker selections: Executive control paradigms

Cameron S. Carter, Michael Minzenberg, Robert West, Angus MacDonald

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    38 Scopus citations


    In this article, we describe results of the 5th Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia meeting which identified candidate imaging biomarkers for used in measuring neural activity associated with specific component processes of cognition that are targeted for treatment development in schizophrenia and other disorders. This manuscript describes the process by which measures related to executive control were selected, along with the specific measures recommended for further development. Two paradigms were recommended for measurement of the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying 2 core component processes of executive control, rule generation and selection, and dynamic adjustments of Control. The 2 paradigms are the AX continuous performance task task (letter and dot forms), implemented as an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to engage neural systems supporting rule generation and selection, and the switching Stroop task, implemented as either fMRI or electroencephalography that may be used as a measure of both rule generation and selection as well as dynamic adjustment in control. A detailed description of each paradigm, together with a review of the relevant literature related to their cognitive and neural validity and measurement properties is provided. These 2 paradigms are recommended for further development, including further validation at the cognitive and neural level and optimization with respect to subject tolerability, psychometric, and neurometric features.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)34-42
    Number of pages9
    JournalSchizophrenia bulletin
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Jan 2012


    • AX CPT
    • Stroop
    • cognition
    • cognitive neuroscience
    • executive functions
    • imaging biomarker
    • schizophrenia
    • treatment


    Dive into the research topics of 'CNTRICS imaging biomarker selections: Executive control paradigms'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this