For extreme multi-label classification (XMC), existing classification-based models poorly perform for tail labels and often ignore the semantic relations among labels, like treating “Wikipedia” and “Wiki” as independent and separate labels. In this paper, we cast XMC as a generation task (XLGen), where we benefit from pre-trained text-to-text models. However, generating labels from the extremely large label space is challenging without any constraints or guidance. We, therefore, propose to guide label generation using label cluster information to hierarchically generate lower-level labels. We also find that frequency-based label ordering and using decoding ensemble methods are critical factors for the improvements in XLGen. XLGen with cluster guidance significantly outperforms the classification and generation baselines on tail labels, and also generally improves the overall performance in four popular XMC benchmarks. In human evaluation, we also find XLGen generates unseen but plausible labels. Our code is now available at https://github.com/alexa/xlgen-eacl-2023.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||EACL 2023 - 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference|
|Publisher||Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL)|
|Number of pages||16|
|State||Published - 2023|
|Event||17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL 2023 - Dubrovnik, Croatia|
Duration: May 2 2023 → May 6 2023
|Name||EACL 2023 - 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference|
|Conference||17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL 2023|
|Period||5/2/23 → 5/6/23|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 Association for Computational Linguistics.