Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation Effects on Parkinsonian Motor Symptoms in a Non-Human Primate – Is Beta Enough?

Luke A. Johnson, Shane D. Nebeck, Abirami Muralidharan, Matthew D. Johnson, Kenneth B. Baker, Jerrold L. Vitek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Background Incorporating feedback controls based on real-time measures of pathological brain activity may improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) approaches for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Excessive beta oscillations in subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potentials (LFP) have been proposed as a potential biomarker for closed-loop DBS (CL-DBS). Objective In a non-human primate PD model we compared CL-DBS, which delivered stimulation only when STN LFP beta activity was elevated, to traditional continuous DBS (tDBS). Methods Therapeutic effects of CL-DBS and tDBS relative to the Off-DBS condition were evaluated via a clinical rating scale and objective measures of movement speed during a cued reaching task. Results CL-DBS was comparable to tDBS at reducing rigidity, while reducing the amount of time DBS was on by ≈50%; however, only tDBS improved bradykinesia during the reaching behavior. This was likely due to reach-related reductions in beta amplitude that influence the timing and duration of stimulation in the CL-DBS condition. Conclusion These results illustrate the potential utility of closed-loop DBS devices for PD based on STN beta LFP levels. They also point to possible consequences in behavioral tasks when restricting real-time sensing to a single LFP frequency that itself is modulated during performance of such tasks. The present study provides data that suggest alternate algorithms or more than one physiological biomarker may be required to optimize the performance of behavioral tasks and demonstrates the value of using multiple objective measures when evaluating the efficacy of closed-loop DBS systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)892-896
Number of pages5
JournalBrain Stimulation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health , National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ( NS-037019 ). Postdoctoral fellowship for Basic Scientists from the Parkinson's Disease Foundation was awarded to to A.M. and a MnDRIVE (Minnesota Discovery, Research and InnoVation Economy) Initiative Neuromodulation Post-doctoral Fellowship to L.A.J.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.


  • Closed-loop
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Local field potentials
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Subthalamic nucleus


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