Closed form expressions for the prediction of retention times and peak widths for gradient liquid chromatography are particularly useful in understanding, rationalizing and optimizing separations. These expressions are obtained by integrating differential equations, in conjunction with a model of the variation of the retention factor as a function of mobile phase composition. Two of these models, the linear solvent strength (LSS) model and the Neue-Kuss (NK) model are explored in the present work. Here, we expand on these closed form expressions to account for effects of sample volume overload and a mismatch between the sample solvent and the initial mobile phase composition for the gradient. We show that there have been errors in expressions reported in the literature, and we have evaluated the accuracy of the predictions from the closed form expressions reported here using a recently developed liquid chromatography simulator. The expressions assume a constant plate height and consider elution across four zones of the gradient profile – elution in the sample solvent, elution in the initial (isocratic) mobile phase caused by the gradient delay volume, elution during a linear gradient, and elution post-gradient at the final (isocratic) mobile phase composition. The expressions generally give reasonably accurate predictions for retention times and peak widths, except for cases where the solute elutes during transitions between the different zones. The average magnitude of the prediction errors for retention time and peak width relative to simulation were 0.093% and 0.40% for the LSS expressions for ten amphetamine solutes at 36 different separation conditions, and 0.22% and 1.8% for the NK expressions for eight alkylbenzene solutes at 36 different separation conditions, respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
SCR acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation , grant numbers CHE-1507332 and CHE-1609449 . DS acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation , grant numbers CHE-1508159 and CHE-2003734 .
- Closed form equations
- Liquid chromatography simulator
- Sample solvent mismatch
- Volume overload
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article