Clinical data of the University of Kentucky trial using californium (252Cf), or caesium (137Cs), are reviewed for dose-response based on the endpoint of tumour eradication estimated from hysterectomy specimens obtained 4-6 weeks after preoperative irradiation. These data are used to assess the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for 252Cf neutrons compared with 137Cs γ radiation. Tumours treated were of common stage but were of bulky or barrel shape suitable for 'radiosurgical' therapy. Dose-repsonse curves were constructed, and additional data from the literature used to analyse the curve shape. The photon dose-response curve is complex on a logarithmic plot, whereas the 252Cf neutron curve is exponential. This indicates that the RBE can be different depending on the number of implants, schedule and size of dose delivered per session. The RBE values were approximately 8.0 at low doses or for multiple implants but they may rise to approximately 16 at larger doses or for single 252Cf implants.