Clinical practice guidelines for oral management of Sjögren disease: Dental caries prevention

Domenick T. Zero, Michael T. Brennan, Troy E. Daniels, Athena Papas, Carol Stewart, Andres Pinto, Ibtisam Al-Hashimi, Mahvash Navazesh, Nelson Rhodus, James Sciubba, Mabi Singh, Ava J. Wu, Julie Frantsve-Hawley, Sharon Tracy, Philip C. Fox, Theresa Lawrence Ford, Stephen Cohen, Frederick B. Vivino, Katherine M. Hammitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Background Salivary dysfunction in Sjögren disease can lead to serious and costly oral health complications. Clinical practice guidelines for caries prevention in Sjögren disease were developed to improve quality and consistency of care. Methods A national panel of experts devised clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes format and included use of fluoride, salivary stimulants, antimicrobial agents, and nonfluoride remineralizing agents. The panel conducted a systematic search of the literature according to pre-established parameters. At least 2 members extracted the data, and the panel rated the strength of the recommendations by using a variation of grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation. After a Delphi consensus panel was conducted, the experts finalized the recommendations, with a minimum of 75% agreement required. Results Final recommendations for patients with Sjögren disease with dry mouth were as follows: topical fluoride should be used in all patients (strong); although no study results link improved salivary flow to caries prevention, the oral health community generally accepts that increasing saliva may contribute to decreased caries incidence, so increasing saliva through gustatory, masticatory, or pharmaceutical stimulation may be considered (weak); chlorhexidine administered as varnish, gel, or rinse may be considered (weak); and nonfluoride remineralizing agents may be considered as an adjunct therapy (moderate). Conclusions and Practical Implications The incidence of caries in patients with Sjögren disease can be reduced with the use of topical fluoride and other preventive strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-305
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Dental Association
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Dental Association. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Sjögren syndrome
  • antimicrobial
  • fluoride
  • practice guidelines
  • remineralization
  • salivary flow
  • xerostomia


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