Many antibiotics are eliminated renally and dosage adjustments are commonly made in patients with renal insufficiency. This is a critical review of antibiotic pharmacokinetics in patients with various degrees of renal function. Detailed information regarding pharmacokinetic alterations with specific antibiotics or antibiotic classes has been compiled and tabulated. From pharmacokinetic evidence, recommendations for dosage adjustments of antibiotics are supplied. The criteria used for assigning rating levels to specific pharmacokinetic articles as well as the grading system for dosage adjustments are outlined. In addition, a basic review of pharmacokinetic alterations in renal failure and factors affecting the removal of drugs by haemodialysis is included.