OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs in the UK and to describe clinical presentation, clinicopathological abnormalities, therapeutic protocols and outcome in this non-endemic country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of dogs diagnosed with leishmaniasis at seven referral centres in the UK were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The prevalence was between 0·007 and 0·04% with a higher number of cases in southern England. All dogs had a history of travel to or from an endemic country. Lethargy, dermatological disease, decreased appetite and lameness were the most common reasons for presentation. Allopurinol was used alone for treatment in the majority of cases. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although rare, leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs in the UK if they have compatible clinical signs and history of travel to or from endemic areas.