Clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in protein-losing enteropathy in yorkshire terrier dogs

S. M. Simmerson, P. J. Armstrong, Arno Wuenschmann, C. R. Jessen, L. J. Crews, Robert J Washabau, VMD, PhD

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: A poorly understood protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) disorder has been reported in Yorkshire Terrier dogs. Objectives: To describe clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE, and to identify variables predictive of outcome. Animals: Thirty client-owned Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE. Methods: Retrospective study. Records of dogs with a diagnosis of PLE were reviewed. Intestinal histopathology was interpreted using the World Small Animal Veterinary Association gastrointestinal histopathology classification system. Discriminate analysis techniques were used to identify variables predictive of outcome. Results: Females outnumbered males (20/30). Median age was 7 years (range 1-12). Common clinical signs were diarrhea (20/30), vomiting (11), ascites and abdominal distension (11), and respiratory difficulty (8). Histopathologic abnormalities included villous lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, villous stunting, and variable increases in cellularity of the lamina propria. All dogs were treated with glucocorticoids. Of 23 dogs with long-term follow-up, 9 had complete, and 3 had partial, resolution of signs, and 11 failed to respond to treatment. Median survival of responders was 44 months and of nonresponders was 12 months, with 4 dogs experiencing peracute death. Vomiting, monocytosis, severity of hypoalbuminemia, low blood urea nitrogen concentration, and villous blunting were predictive of survival <4 months. Conclusions: In addition to classic GI signs, Yorkshire Terriers with PLE often show clinical signs associated with hypoalbuminemia and low oncotic pressure. Lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, and villous stunting are consistent histopathologic findings. Clinical outcomes are variable, but many dogs experience remission of clinical signs and prolonged survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)331-337
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of veterinary internal medicine
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2014

Fingerprint

Protein-Losing Enteropathies
digestive system diseases
histopathology
Dogs
dogs
proteins
Growth Disorders
Hypoalbuminemia
vomiting
lesions (animal)
growth retardation
Vomiting
Dilatation
Yorkshire Terrier
Blood Urea Nitrogen
laminae (animals)
ascites
remission
glucocorticoids
urea nitrogen

Keywords

  • Endoscopic biopsy
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Lymphangiectasia

Cite this

Clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in protein-losing enteropathy in yorkshire terrier dogs. / Simmerson, S. M.; Armstrong, P. J.; Wuenschmann, Arno; Jessen, C. R.; Crews, L. J.; Washabau, VMD, PhD, Robert J.

In: Journal of veterinary internal medicine, Vol. 28, No. 2, 01.03.2014, p. 331-337.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{b130a54ab6794325ba772868a98f4e70,
title = "Clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in protein-losing enteropathy in yorkshire terrier dogs",
abstract = "Background: A poorly understood protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) disorder has been reported in Yorkshire Terrier dogs. Objectives: To describe clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE, and to identify variables predictive of outcome. Animals: Thirty client-owned Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE. Methods: Retrospective study. Records of dogs with a diagnosis of PLE were reviewed. Intestinal histopathology was interpreted using the World Small Animal Veterinary Association gastrointestinal histopathology classification system. Discriminate analysis techniques were used to identify variables predictive of outcome. Results: Females outnumbered males (20/30). Median age was 7 years (range 1-12). Common clinical signs were diarrhea (20/30), vomiting (11), ascites and abdominal distension (11), and respiratory difficulty (8). Histopathologic abnormalities included villous lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, villous stunting, and variable increases in cellularity of the lamina propria. All dogs were treated with glucocorticoids. Of 23 dogs with long-term follow-up, 9 had complete, and 3 had partial, resolution of signs, and 11 failed to respond to treatment. Median survival of responders was 44 months and of nonresponders was 12 months, with 4 dogs experiencing peracute death. Vomiting, monocytosis, severity of hypoalbuminemia, low blood urea nitrogen concentration, and villous blunting were predictive of survival <4 months. Conclusions: In addition to classic GI signs, Yorkshire Terriers with PLE often show clinical signs associated with hypoalbuminemia and low oncotic pressure. Lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, and villous stunting are consistent histopathologic findings. Clinical outcomes are variable, but many dogs experience remission of clinical signs and prolonged survival.",
keywords = "Endoscopic biopsy, Inflammatory bowel disease, Lymphangiectasia",
author = "Simmerson, {S. M.} and Armstrong, {P. J.} and Arno Wuenschmann and Jessen, {C. R.} and Crews, {L. J.} and {Washabau, VMD, PhD}, {Robert J}",
year = "2014",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/jvim.12291",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
pages = "331--337",
journal = "Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine",
issn = "0891-6640",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in protein-losing enteropathy in yorkshire terrier dogs

AU - Simmerson, S. M.

AU - Armstrong, P. J.

AU - Wuenschmann, Arno

AU - Jessen, C. R.

AU - Crews, L. J.

AU - Washabau, VMD, PhD, Robert J

PY - 2014/3/1

Y1 - 2014/3/1

N2 - Background: A poorly understood protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) disorder has been reported in Yorkshire Terrier dogs. Objectives: To describe clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE, and to identify variables predictive of outcome. Animals: Thirty client-owned Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE. Methods: Retrospective study. Records of dogs with a diagnosis of PLE were reviewed. Intestinal histopathology was interpreted using the World Small Animal Veterinary Association gastrointestinal histopathology classification system. Discriminate analysis techniques were used to identify variables predictive of outcome. Results: Females outnumbered males (20/30). Median age was 7 years (range 1-12). Common clinical signs were diarrhea (20/30), vomiting (11), ascites and abdominal distension (11), and respiratory difficulty (8). Histopathologic abnormalities included villous lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, villous stunting, and variable increases in cellularity of the lamina propria. All dogs were treated with glucocorticoids. Of 23 dogs with long-term follow-up, 9 had complete, and 3 had partial, resolution of signs, and 11 failed to respond to treatment. Median survival of responders was 44 months and of nonresponders was 12 months, with 4 dogs experiencing peracute death. Vomiting, monocytosis, severity of hypoalbuminemia, low blood urea nitrogen concentration, and villous blunting were predictive of survival <4 months. Conclusions: In addition to classic GI signs, Yorkshire Terriers with PLE often show clinical signs associated with hypoalbuminemia and low oncotic pressure. Lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, and villous stunting are consistent histopathologic findings. Clinical outcomes are variable, but many dogs experience remission of clinical signs and prolonged survival.

AB - Background: A poorly understood protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) disorder has been reported in Yorkshire Terrier dogs. Objectives: To describe clinical features, intestinal histopathology, and outcome in Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE, and to identify variables predictive of outcome. Animals: Thirty client-owned Yorkshire Terrier dogs with PLE. Methods: Retrospective study. Records of dogs with a diagnosis of PLE were reviewed. Intestinal histopathology was interpreted using the World Small Animal Veterinary Association gastrointestinal histopathology classification system. Discriminate analysis techniques were used to identify variables predictive of outcome. Results: Females outnumbered males (20/30). Median age was 7 years (range 1-12). Common clinical signs were diarrhea (20/30), vomiting (11), ascites and abdominal distension (11), and respiratory difficulty (8). Histopathologic abnormalities included villous lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, villous stunting, and variable increases in cellularity of the lamina propria. All dogs were treated with glucocorticoids. Of 23 dogs with long-term follow-up, 9 had complete, and 3 had partial, resolution of signs, and 11 failed to respond to treatment. Median survival of responders was 44 months and of nonresponders was 12 months, with 4 dogs experiencing peracute death. Vomiting, monocytosis, severity of hypoalbuminemia, low blood urea nitrogen concentration, and villous blunting were predictive of survival <4 months. Conclusions: In addition to classic GI signs, Yorkshire Terriers with PLE often show clinical signs associated with hypoalbuminemia and low oncotic pressure. Lymphatic dilatation, crypt lesions, and villous stunting are consistent histopathologic findings. Clinical outcomes are variable, but many dogs experience remission of clinical signs and prolonged survival.

KW - Endoscopic biopsy

KW - Inflammatory bowel disease

KW - Lymphangiectasia

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84897622024&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84897622024&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/jvim.12291

DO - 10.1111/jvim.12291

M3 - Article

C2 - 24467282

AN - SCOPUS:84897622024

VL - 28

SP - 331

EP - 337

JO - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

JF - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

SN - 0891-6640

IS - 2

ER -