This study examined molecular and epidemiologic factors associated with Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) among hospitalized patients colonized intestinally with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli between 2002 and 2004. Among 86 patients, 21 (24%) were colonized with ST131. The proportion of ST131 isolates among colonizing isolates increased significantly over time, from 8% in 2002 to 50% in 2004 (P = 0.003). Furthermore, all 19 clonally related isolates were ST131. Future studies should identify potential transmissibility differences between ST131 and non-ST131 strains.