Clinical activity of enzalutamide in docetaxel-naïve and docetaxel-pretreated patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Rosa Nadal, Zhe Zhang, Hibba Rahman, Michael T. Schweizer, Samuel R. Denmeade, Channing J. Paller, Michael A. Carducci, Mario A. Eisenberger, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND. Two randomized clinical trials have demonstrated a survival advantage with enzalutamide over placebo in both docetaxel (D)-pretreated and D-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Cross-resistance between androgen receptor-directed therapies and taxanes has been suggested, possibly leading to lower efficacy of enzalutamide in the post-D setting. METHODS. We aimed to examine the impact of prior D treatment on the clinical activity of enzalutamide in patients with mCRPC. We retrospectively reviewed an institutional database to identify men with mCRPC treated with standard-of-care enzalutamide. Patients were classified as D-naïve or D-pretreated. The efficacy end points were prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates (≥ 50% PSA decline), time to PSA progression (TTPP) and clinical/radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) in response to enzalutamide. Differences between groups (D-naïve and D-pretreated) were assessed by univariate and multivariable analyses using logistic and Cox regression models. RESULTS. One-hundred-seven (107) consecutive patients were included: 60 were D-pretreated and 47 were D-naïve. PSA responses were 43.2% in D-naïve patients and 25.4% in D-pretreated patients (P = 0.089). Median TTPP was 7.2 months (95% CI = 4.5-17.2) in the D-naïve group versus 2.6 mo (95% CI = 1.9-3.5) in the D-pretreated group (P < 0.0001). Median PFS was not reached for D-naïve men and was 3.3 mo (95% CI = 2.5-4.8) for D-pretreated men (P < 0.0001). After adjusting for potential confounders including prior abiraterone use, differences remained statistically significant for TTPP (HR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.19-4.50; P = 0.013) and marginally significant for PFS (HR = 1.90; 95% CI = 0.94-3.84; P = 0.073) in multivariable analyses. Among patients who achieved a PSA response to enzalutamide (n = 34), results suggested a trend towards shorter duration of response in D-pretreated patients. CONCLUSIONS. The clinical activity of enzalutamide appears to be blunted in patients who have previously received docetaxel chemotherapy. These results support the concept of cross-resistance between these two agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1560-1568
Number of pages9
Issue number15
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


  • Clinical activity
  • Cross-resistance
  • Docetaxel
  • Enzalutamide
  • Prostate cancer


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