Clean intermittent catheterization has been successful in the management of urinary incontinence and upper tract changes associated with a neurogenic bladder. The results of clean intermittent catheterization controlling urinary incontinence, ureteral reflux, upper tract dilatation and urinary infection in 84 children with a neurogenic bladder were evaluated for up to 3 years of followup. Of the children 41 (49 per cent) were totally incontinent and 14 (17 per cent) were slightly damp. Pre-existing ureteral reflux deteriorated in 25 per cent of the patients, ceased in 35 per cent and was unchanged in 40 per cent, while pre-existing upper tract dilatation improved in 12.5 per cent and was unchanged in 87.5 per cent. On clean intermittent catheterization and antibacterial medication 90 per cent of the children had sterile urine and 7.5 per cent had 105 or more colonies per ml. Complications occurred on 54 occasions but were minor in nature and were corrected easily. Half of the parents, schools and children found clean intermittent catheterization very acceptable, or acceptable but a quarter of the parents and patients found it unacceptable or slightly unacceptable, or were undecided. Initial management of urinary complications associated with neurogenic bladder in children has changed to the clean intermittent catheterization program, with greatly improved results compared to Crede's expression of the bladder, an indwelling urethral catheter or urinary diversion. However, the clean intermittent catheterization regimen was not effective completely, not without complications and not accepted completely by parents, schools and children.