CLASSY III. the Properties of Starburst-driven Warm Ionized Outflows

Xinfeng Xu, Timothy Heckman, Alaina Henry, Danielle A. Berg, John Chisholm, Bethan L. James, Crystal L. Martin, Daniel P. Stark, Alessandra Aloisi, Ricardo O. Amorín, Karla Z. Arellano-Córdova, Rongmon Bordoloi, Stéphane Charlot, Zuyi Chen, Matthew Hayes, Matilde Mingozzi, Yuma Sugahara, Lisa J. Kewley, Masami Ouchi, Claudia ScarlataCharles C. Steidel

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33 Scopus citations


We report the results of analyses of galactic outflows in a sample of 45 low-redshift starburst galaxies in the COS Legacy Archive Spectroscopic SurveY (CLASSY), augmented by five additional similar starbursts with Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) data. The outflows are traced by blueshifted absorption lines of metals spanning a wide range of ionization potential. The high quality and broad spectral coverage of CLASSY data enable us to disentangle the absorption due to the static interstellar medium (ISM) from that due to outflows. We further use different line multiplets and doublets to determine the covering fraction, column density, and ionization state as a function of velocity for each outflow. We measure the outflow's mean velocity and velocity width, and find that both correlate in a highly significant way with the star formation rate, galaxy mass, and circular velocity over ranges of four orders of magnitude for the first two properties. We also estimate outflow rates of metals, mass, momentum, and kinetic energy. We find that, at most, only about 20% of silicon created and ejected by supernovae in the starburst is carried out in the warm phase we observe. The outflows' mass-loading factor increases steeply and inversely with both circular and outflow velocity (log-log slope ∼-1.6), and reaches ∼10 for dwarf galaxies. We find that the outflows typically carry about 10%-100% of the momentum injected by massive stars and about 1%-20% of the kinetic energy. We show that these results place interesting constraints on, and new insights into, models and simulations of galactic winds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number222
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The CLASSY team is grateful for the support of this program, HST-GO-15840, provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associations of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. B.L.J. thanks the European Space Agency (ESA) for its support. The CLASSY Collaboration extends special gratitude to the Lorentz Center for useful discussions during the “Characterizing Galaxies with Spectroscopy with a view for JWST” 2017 workshop that led to the formation of the CLASSY Collaboration and survey.

Funding Information:
Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III website is .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.


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