Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis (also referred to as cerebral chromomycosis), one of the diseases caused by the dematiaceous (black) fungi, is most commonly caused by Cladosporium trichoides (referred to by some as Xylohypha bantiana) and is a rare disease, with 31 culture-proven cases reported to date. Although most cases have occurred in immunocompetent hosts, recent experimental evidence suggests that host immunosuppression may predispose patients to the disease. The authors report a case of fatal cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a liver transplant patient, the first to occur in a transplant patient of any type, to the best of the authors' knowledge. This case provides support for the hypothesis that immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for development of this disease.
- Dematiaceous fungi
- Liver transplantation