Circulating sex hormones play no role in the association between sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer

Hamed Ahmadi, Farzad Allameh, Nima Baradaran, Laleh Montaser-Kouhsari, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Sepehr Salem, Abdolrasoul Mehrsai, Gholamreza Pourmand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Introduction. High sexual activity (SA) has been reported to reduce the risk of prostate cancer (PC). The role of sex hormones (SHs) in this regard remains controversial. Aims. To determine the impact of SA and SHs on PC development. Methods. In a multicentric hospital-based case-control study, 194 newly diagnosed PC patients along with 317 age-matched controls were studied. Sociodemographic and medical characteristics of participants were recorded. History of vasectomy and sexually transmitted infection (STI), marital status, age at first intercourse, premarital sex, and the current frequency of sexual intercourses per month (SPM) were evaluated. Total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), estradiol (ES), sex hormone binding globulin, and albumin were also measured. Logistic regression model was used to identify independent risk factors for PC. Main Outcome Measures. (i) The association between SA, SHs, and the risk of PC; (ii) The correlation between SHs and SA; (iii) The interaction between SHs and SA and established risk factors for PC and erectile dysfunction in determining the risk of PC; and (iv) The correlation between SHs and SA in determining the risk of PC in different decades of life. Results. Vasectomy, STI, and marital status did not differ significantly between two cohorts. Controls reported premarital sex more commonly than cases (P<0.001). Cases had the first intercourse at older age (P=0.03) and had less SPM (P<0.001). TT, FT, and ES were higher in controls (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, TT, calculated FT, SPM >4, and age at time of marriage <24 were protective against PC. The protective effect of high SA and SHs increased as patients' age increased. Conclusions. High SA as well as TT and FT were protective against PC. Their protective role enhances by each decade of increasing age. The protective effect of high SA was independent from circulating levels of SHs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)905-913
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the nursing, secretary and administrative staff of the Urology Research Center, Sina Hospital, especially, Mrs. M. Zahedikia, Mrs. F. Hidari and Mrs. G. Abdi for their excellent collaboration in the study. Patient recruitment has been the dedicated collaboration of the following contributors: Dr. MA. Amirzargar, Dr. H. Mazdak, Dr. A. Roshani, and Dr. A. Kheirollahi. Furthermore, we would like to thank the personnel of Gholhak laboratory, and particularly Dr. E. Kalantar, for their contribution in assessment of the tests. This study was supported in part by a grant from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (No. 2812).


  • Case-Control Studies
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Sexual Activity


Dive into the research topics of 'Circulating sex hormones play no role in the association between sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this