Circular dichroism (c.d.) spectra were obtained for deoxy, oxy, carboxy, nitrosyl, aquomet and azidomet derivatives of carp hemoglobin. The spectra of the hemolysate and its two major components are virtually identical. Binding of diatomic ligands induces large changes in the 287 nm ellipticity. In the case of oxygen binding this change appears to be proportional to the free energy of co-operation. The changes of L-band ellipticity and Soret rotational strength with ligation reflect tertiary structural alterations and bear no relationship to quaternary transitions. The c.d. results indicate that carp deoxyhemoglobin has very similar tertiary and quaternary structures between pH 6·4 and 8·0, whereas the oxyhemoglobin undergoes continuous conformational adjustment in response to pH changes. The effect of inositol hexaphosphate on c.d. spectra is much smaller than it is on the functional properties. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of iodoacetamide nitroxide label are sensitive to ligation, the label is probably attached to Cys142β.