A circadian rhythm in serum leptin, measured every 4 h for 24 h, characterizes normal-weight women (N = 14), and women with gynoid (N = 17) or android (N = 26) obesity, peaking around midnight (P < 0.05), but differing by about 3 h between android and gynoid women (P < 0.01). Obesity is associated with a higher MESOR (rhythm-adjusted mean; P < 0.001) and a smaller relative circadian amplitude (P < 0.05). Gynoid obesity is associated with a larger circadian amplitude of cortisol (P < 0.05), whereas android obesity is associated with a larger circadian amplitude and a higher MESOR of insulin (P < 0.05). Understanding putative mechanisms underlying different body fat distribution may lead to improved chronotherapeutic measures.
- Body fat distribution (android versus gynoid)
- Circadian rhythm